It was Elector August (1526-1586), who helped the Saxons with political ambitions, as well as with numerous regulations and reforms, to an upswing. Like many monarchs of this time, he also discovered his passion for collecting. In 1560 he founded an art or "miracle chamber" in Dresden: it should be filled with everything that fascinated him and his descendants. Among them were pictures, weapons and jewellery, crafts, curiosities and utensils, as well as mechanical, astronomical and surveying instruments. This art chamber formed the basis for further collections and for the "Royal Cabinet of Mathematical and Physical Instruments", which was separated out in 1729 and under Johann Gottfried Köhler became very important for the development of precision time measurement.